Tesla Model S
Tesla Model S is a revolutionary electric car that was designed to conquer the internal combustion engine and to begin to instill in people a love of nature, driving only on ecological vehicles. For the first time, the machine has proved to everyone that the electric motor has a huge advantage over a combustion engine, which is already outdated. The whole model range is Tesla.
- Model history
- Board computer
- Views of vehicle modifications
- Suspension and chassis
- Rail control
- Brake system
- Safety and crash tests
- Price and equipment
- Pluses and minuses
- We’ll summarize
- Tesla Model S photos
- Video Overview
The machine aroused a lot of interest, the manufacturer has received many pre-orders for new machines. However, potential buyers still had to wait three years for the opportunity to ride with the wind, without spending a single gram of gasoline. It is worth mentioning separately that in designing the Model S, the company has applied a lot of extraordinary technological solutions. More than 250 patents were issued during the development process alone.
Tesla Model S is a five-door electric car manufactured by the American company Tesla Motors. The first time the car was seen at the Frankfurt Motor Show in 2009. Deliveries of a full-fledged vehicle to the United States of America began in June 2012. Electric cars began to occupy New York City a hundred years ago. However, why are they still not so popular on Earth?
The answer to this question can be quite simple – for those times there were not enough batteries for power. While technology was developing, more powerful batteries were able to emerge, and for quite some time now. For decades now, prototypes of efficient and practical electric cars have been available at various exhibitions and in the news.
Any of these models had something unique and innovative, and some companies even started their production line, and set a reasonable price for consumers. However, why are the main vehicles then the machines on which internal combustion engines are installed?
And all because of the fact that at that time there was simply no electric car, which would have become revolutionary in the automotive industry. Many electric cars were praised in narrow circles of geeks, however, they could not find their niche among ordinary customers.
There were family variations of the car that could save money, but there was no supercar, a notebook on the cover that children could sweep off the shelves and dream of from an early age. The electric car market did not have its own “iPhone” and its own Steve Jobs, who could develop it.
The stylistic solution of Tesla Model C refers to the designer Franz von Holzhausen – a little earlier he worked at Mazda North American Operations. During the preliminary research and development of the sedan acquired the code name Whitestar. The car was announced in the presentation on June 30, 2008, and the prototype version was already demonstrated in March (26) 2009. Already at the beginning of February it was clear that Tesla Motors was thinking about offering an extended version of its own Model C.
This modification would have had a gasoline power unit to improve the driving range of the car, but this was decided to abandon in subsequent versions. During the GoingGreen conference held in September 2008, Tesla CEO Ilon Mask announced that the company participates in the development of only electric cars. The company did not manage to determine the place of assembly of cars at once.
The construction of a car assembly plant in Albuquerque, New Mexico, was planned for April 2007, but was cancelled, after which the management of the company announced the construction of the plant in San Jose, California. May 2010 allowed the company to announce the production of Model C on the basis of the previous NUMMI assembly hall (Fremont, California). Today the name of the plant is Tesla Factory. This third plan was finally implemented.
Today, only a few can remember what problems this presentation had, because the company was even on the verge of bankruptcy. But Ilon continued to believe in the idea of producing an electric machine in serial variation until the end, was able to invest all his own money, and also found investors. As a result, his efforts were not useless – the debut limited batch of machines (1000 pieces) was sold very quickly. And this is despite the fact that every elevatorback cost about $100000.
This positive result is not very surprising, because to date, Tesla confidently holds the pedestal of an electric car, which has the greatest mileage without recharging. In addition, the car reaches the first mark of 100 km/h in just 2.8 seconds! (This is the top Model S P85D in Ludicrous driving mode). In addition, in the United States of America, the car elevator back has the title of the safest car. Reality has been able to exceed all expectations.
For the first time in 10 years of the company’s history, it was able to reach break-even profitable production, pay off debts and increase the number of produced by Tesla Model S. At this point, about 50000 similar electric machines are moving around the globe. In fact, the best elevator back in the world is not only the leader in the list of electric cars. For example, in the United States of America in 2013, the car became a leader among luxury sedans, even ahead of BMW 7 series and Mercedes-Benz S-class. Norway has allowed the Model S electric car to become the most purchased car in 2013 with government support. A strong opponent, Volkswagen Golf, was able to outpace the competition.
For European customers, Tesla Motors manufactures and sells the machine from its own European distribution centre in Tilburg, the Netherlands. The machines are manufactured and tested in Fremont. The batteries, together with the engine and other components, are disassembled and transported to Tilburg, where they are then reassembled. The building occupies an area of about 18900 square meters in the Netherlands and also acts as a workshop and spare parts warehouse. The debut 10 customers were able to obtain their own machines at Fremont already in the summer of 2012 during the official presentation.
Following this, the output of vehicles increased from 15-20 ready-made models per week (in August) to more than 200 by November 5. Already next month (December), this figure rose to 400 units. At the end of 2012, the company decided to replay its own supply forecasts for 2012. In the next three months of 2013, this figure was 6,892 units.
At the end of 2013, the California state government announced a $34,700,000 tax break for Ilona Mask to allow the form to expand output (to 35,000 vehicles per year).
The management of the company itself has decided to promise that the production will be increased from 600 machines per week (from the beginning of 2014) to 1,000 units per week by the end of the current year, as many had expected. The first quarter of 2014 allowed the plant to produce 7,535 electric machines. The following quarter has already allowed the plant to produce 9,000 electric cars. According to Ilona, Model C will be able to “return” the energy spent on the new product in less than 16,000 km.
By 2014, the Americans decided to upgrade the Esku and introduced several four-wheel drive models, increased engine power and equipped the multimedia system with a new interface. Tesla Model S looks beautiful and expressive, and in a stream of cars it is possible to catch it and guess without much effort, despite the fact that the elevator back from some angles looks a little like other brands.
But it is still easy to distinguish it partly because the model is not yet so widespread, especially in the former Soviet Union. Tesla Model S looks very attractive and stylish, responding to modern trends, so it is no different from a simple car with an internal combustion engine.
The car has a pronounced aggressive front with xenon optics, long and fast silhouette with actively falling roof line. The beauty of the car is also given to the “muscular” wheel arches and retractable door handles. At the back of the truck there is a powerful stern with elegant LED headlights and a massive bumper. It turns out that the Tesla Model S on the outside fully meets its own premium status.
Taking into account all this, the model does not lose to famous world rivals with conventional power units. The next restyling of the “murderer” of gasoline and diesel cars could be postponed at the beginning of April 2016. This update mainly concerned the appearance, which became the stylistic solution of the crossover version Model X and three-piece Model 3.
Most of the changes can be seen on the nose of the electric car, from which now removed the imitation of the radiator grille, a black plug, which gave way to a thin strip, on which the company logo was successfully placed. Instead of bi-xenon lighting they decided to install an LED system. Speaking of other angles of the “American”, we can say that he was able to fully preserve his already existing pleasant lines.
If we talk about the interior decoration of Tesla Model C, it simply can not but cause the most enthusiastic emotions, as almost everything is built around a 17-inch interactive display that serves as a console. It is located in the center of the front panel, responsible for all the basic functions of the machine. The peculiarity of the body can be called the presence of two luggage compartments – front and back.
The interior of the car can accommodate 5 people, but it is possible to attach two additional child seats in the rear luggage compartment. Salon Tesla Model S has leather trim, comfortable seats have built-in heating. The interior lighting system is controlled by an on-board computer.
The computer is worth mentioning in particular – the 17-inch touchscreen display on the right of the driver is not only designed to display a lot of up-to-date information about the condition of the car and the road, it also allows you to control the settings and operation of most parts of the car, from the above mentioned semi-autonomous control system to the opening of the hatch on the roof of the car.
The monitor has a lot of settings and adjustments, and also the system has been synchronized with smartphones. The screen itself received touch support and Full HD resolution (1920×1080). The dashboard appears to be the second color display with the size slightly smaller than the large one. It has a more modest resolution (1280×480). Instead of the motor speed, the panel displays the ammeter data.
The on-board computer was built on the Nvidia Tegra 3 platform. Employees of the Tesla company were able to design a rather ergonomic interface of settings of all possible subsystems. At the same time, it has not lost visual appeal. With its help it is possible to adjust the height of the ground clearance, brake system together with the steering. It is also possible to display the navigation system, adjust the climatic situation inside the car and so on.
Yes, what can I say, even if the door of the charging connector, along with the hatch on the roof, function with the help of virtual keys and sliders. The Ubuntu operating system is used. The display has a function of splitting the screen into two parts: the top will display the adjustments of the elevator back, and in the bottom will be able to show the rear of the movies or display the navigation map.
The display of the electric car significantly simplifies the operation of the car, while at the same time allowing you to display more useful and necessary information on it. Moreover, the updated car was taught to update its own software via Wi-Fi on its own. With the help of the mobile application, you can remotely start heating or cooling the interior. Speaking in general, the system based on Tegra has eight specialized processors, where there is a multi-core processor ARM-architecture, graphics processor, specialized audio and video processor and image processing processor.
According to Nvidia, its consumption is 2% of the energy of a standard processor. The most grounded element in the cabin of Tesla Model S is a standard multifunctional steering wheel, which in sports style was truncated in the lower area. The interior was made using premium materials such as leather, aluminum and wood.
seatsComfortable ergonomic seats with very well developed side support and a wide range of electrical adjustments are installed in the front of the cabin. It is clear that the rear seats can no longer be called so hospitable – the sofa has a flat cushion and shapeless backrests, and the sloping roof begins to put pressure on the heads of tall people. As a result, after the renewal of 2016, the exterior of the electric car did not change in terms of design, but received new materials and variations of finishing.
If we talk about practicality, then everything is in order here at the elevator back, taking into account the five-seat interior, trunk capacity of 745 liters, and if you fold the backrest of the chairs of the 2nd row of seats, the mark will be raised to 1 645 liters. There is also an auxiliary luggage compartment, which is located in the bow of the car, as there is no engine. Its volume is not so large – 150 liters, although it is quite enough to transport things.
Despite its unusual appearance, the Tesla Model S has become the world’s first hatchback to offer a 3rd row of seats behind the second row of seats. It is not possible to say that sitting there is very comfortable, but it is quite possible to accommodate people of average height. There are only 2 chairs there.
|Short description||Technology||BEV (Battery Electric vehicle)|
|Direct deliveries to Ukraine||no|
|Salon prices||$75,000 – $105,000 *|
|Power||/362/416/762 hp *|
|Charging time||Charge from AC mains:|
110V per 1 hour replenishes 8 km of track
220V per 1 hour replenishes 50 km of trackProcharging at Supercharger fast charging stations per 1 hour 500 km of track.
|Travel range||225/320/426/426 km* (depending on battery capacity)|
|Number of seats||5|
|The number of doors||4|
|Dimensions, weight and volumes||Length||mm||4976|
|Wheelbarring||Forward/rear mm||1661 /1699|
|Concentrated mass||kg||2108 *|
|The trunk volume||litre||900|
|Razgon 0 -100 km/h||s||5,2/4,4/3,2/2,8*|
|Travel range||km||up to 426*|
|Motor||Type||Asynchronous (induction type) three-phase AC motor|
|Model||Use an electric motor of own production|
|Max. power||259/315/362/503 hp *|
|Max. torque||420/430/440/600 Nm*|
|Current part||Rule control||Rail with electric amplifier|
|Pendant||Forward / Rear||dependent/independent|
|Brake system||Ventilated brake discs are used in combination with electronic parking brake drive and regenerative braking system|
|Tires||-Goodyear Eagle RS-A2 245/45R19 (standard 19-inch)|
-Continental Extreme Contact DW 245/35R21 (additional 21-inch)
|Security||The number of airbags||8|
|Safety cushions||Driver and front passenger side airbags, side curtains for the first and second row of seats, front airbags for driver’s and front passenger’s head and knees|
|Auxiliary braking systems||Anti-block brake system (ABS)|
|Other||Collision battery shutdown sensor, immobilizer, seat belts, autopilot, etc.|
An AC three-phase asynchronous electric motor was installed in the electric machine. The motor is an own development of the company Ilona Mask and it has no analogues. The electric motor was installed on the rear axle of the elevator back.
The motor’s top-end power output is 416 horsepower, and the maximum (constant) torque is 600 Nm. Moreover, it develops up to 16000 rpm. The electric motor needs to be cooled, and this is done by means of a liquid cooling system.
Also, apart from the 416-horsepower unit, which makes it possible to reach a speed mark of 100 km/h in 4.4 seconds, there is a 362-horsepower variation of the motor (5.4 seconds), and a 302-horsepower version (5.9 seconds to a hundred). The company claims that the vehicle’s drag coefficient is 0.24, which is significantly lower than any other vehicle. The electric powertrain has been placed above the rear axle, and it is not so easy to see.
During energy recovery, the engine works as a generator when the driver releases the “gas” pedal and the electric car starts to lower its speed.
Views of vehicle modifications
- Tesla Model S 60 has a 306 hp electric motor that produces 430 NM of torque over the entire range, allowing the machine to reach a speed of 100 km/h in 5.5 seconds. The maximum speed is 210 km/h.
- Modification with the number 75 received a power unit for 320 horses. This electric power unit is powered by a 75 kWh battery. The first hundred will also require 5.5 seconds, and the maximum speed will be 230 kilometers per hour. One charge will suffice for a little more than 400 kilometers.
- The body of the Tesla Model C 60D already has a pair of electric motors, with a total capacity of 328 “horses” installed on cars with all-wheel drive system. Such modification reaches the mark of 100 kilometers per hour in 5.2 seconds, and its maximum speed is at the level of 210 km/h. One charge gives a power reserve of about 351 kilometers with the help of batteries of 60 kWh.
- Tesla 75D also received two electric units which together produce 333 “horses” and 525 NM of torque. Thanks to this, the green car has all the qualities of a sports car: the first hundred is achieved in 5.2 seconds, and the peak speed is 230 km/h. The vehicle works with 75 kWh batteries. They allow to drive on one charge of 417 km.
- Next comes the model 90D also with a pair of electric motors, which in total allow you to develop 422 horsepower. Conquer the second “hundred” kilometers per hour car starts after 4.4 seconds. The maximum speed is 249 km/h. Fully charged batteries with a capacity of 90 kWh allow the electric car to drive without charging 473 kilometers.
- Tesla Model S 100D has a four-wheel drive system and a pair of electric motors that together develop 512 horsepower. This makes it possible to reach a speed mark of 100 km/h in 3.3 seconds, and the peak speed will not exceed 250 km/h. It has already installed more powerful batteries at 100 kWh, providing the opportunity to drive one charge of 430 kilometers.
- This top version of the Tesla is called P100D. It has two power units, where an engine mounted at the back gives out 503 “horses” and an engine mounted at the front – 259. In total, the vehicle’s power is 762 horsepower and 967 NM of maximum thrust. With such capacities, the elevator back speeds up to 100 km/h, in just 2.5 seconds. The maximum speed is 250 km/h. Batteries are installed, as well as on the model 100D – 100 kWh, but the car will be able to drive without recharging 613 kilometers.
The Tesla Model S is equipped with a reliable and proven transmission from the world-famous Mercedes-Benz, which drives the machine with a single-stage gearbox (one speed). Gearbox ratio is 9.73.
batteryBatteries have an energy-saving mode, which knows how to turn off the screen and other on-board electronics, followed by the car goes into a state of “sleep”. Thanks to this function, it is possible to reduce the energy consumption of the electric car at a time when they are not used (to date, it is 13 kilometers per day). In addition, in order to restore energy to the “American”, the company has provided a system of regenerative braking, which we talked about a little higher.
The principle of functioning consists in the following: during braking a part of energy is restored again in accumulators, but already as electricity. The battery, which has a capacity of 85 kWh, has 7,104 lithium-ion batteries in 16 modules, synchronized with each other. In each module there are 6 groups of 74 elements which are connected in the parallel way, 6 groups are connected in series in the module.
The Tesla battery operates on galvanic cells with nickel-cobalt aluminium cathodes from the world famous electronics manufacturer Panasonic. Tesla Model S batteries for a 60 kWh machine base level have a warranty period of 8 years or 201,000 kilometres. The 85 kWh batteries did not have any mileage restrictions. A separate warranty for battery replacement is provided after the eighth year – it is estimated at $10,000 for batteries with a capacity of 60 kWh, and for 85 kWh replacement will cost $ 12,000.
It provides the possibility to connect to 120 or 240 volt power supplies with power up to 10 kW. As a separate option, at an additional cost of $2700, it is possible to upgrade the vehicle to a 20 kW or more mains charger using a 100 amp wall charger. The designers decided to place the socket for charging behind the left-hand headlamp. In order to make it convenient for them to use it, LEDs were allocated, which start flashing faster when the battery is almost charged.
The Mask Company does not stop at expanding the network of its own supercharging stations, the capacity of which is equal to 120 kW. This makes it easier to travel between key cities in the United States. Such “refueling” allows you to gain up to 320 kilometers of travel time in half an hour. Fully charged batteries can be charged in an hour if the battery is 85 kWh. Drivers who have an 85 kWh version can charge their electric cars at these “gas stations” for free.
Suspension and chassis
It is safe to say that the Tesla Model C is almost all packed with modern technology, which can be attributed to the undercarriage of the vehicle. In addition, there is an air suspension that can change the clearance of the car. It will be enough only to specify the necessary height, and the car itself will start to rise or fall, based on the needs of the driver.
By means of the lowered centre of gravity the car is felt confident, despite the decent height of road clearance, as at Tiguan. The charged “American” weighs from 1 961 to 2 239 kg. The weight of the “sketch” is distributed along the axes in the ratio of 48/52 (all-wheel drive versions P85D – 50/50). Ahead of the design staff decided to install double transverse levers, and on the back – multilever configuration. An optional air suspension can be ordered.
It has a rack and pinion type and works together with an electric (not surprisingly) power steering. The on-board computer can be used to set the stiffness of the steering wheel. There are several degrees – from sporty hard, to comfortable “Mercedes” soft.
You should say about it separately. The main brake has ventilated brake discs and an electronic parking brake system. The diameter of the front wheels is 355 mm, and the diameter of the rear wheels is 365 mm. Mechanisms received four-piston calipers Brembo and ABS system. However, the main “highlight” of the “American” in its regenerative braking system. Its working principle was described above. It is quite useful and convenient option.
Safety and crash tests
The Model S body is composed of aluminium stamped parts. Huge emphasis is placed on safety. In addition, the responsible areas of the body are reinforced and the airbags are adjusted to protect the driver’s face and knees and front passenger. In addition, the vehicle is equipped with side airbags.
In the event of a collision, a special system includes protection and the battery is switched off. Naturally, the Tesla Model S features ABS and much more. Particularly impressive from this “other” semi-autonomous control system. It summarizes the data from the exterior cameras and the ultrasonic locator, allowing the driver to drive in the lane without the driver’s direct involvement.
Among other things, the “squadron” is also a pretty “smart” car. Since the last days of September 2014, all the latest S vehicles have received a mini-camera located in the upper area of the windshield, a promising radar in the lower area of the grille and ultrasonic sensors, which are located on the front and rear bumpers, which formed a 360-degree buffer area around the car.
Thanks to this equipment it is possible to notice signs on the roads, markings, obstacles and other road users. As an additional option to the adaptive cruise control and lane departure warning service, you can buy a package “Tech Package”, allowing this system to produce semi-automatic driving and parking. The latest vehicles available for sale since October 9, 2014, have the option of an autopilot. Its work consists in automatic driving in different situations.
Compatible vehicles will be able to purchase software that will come “by air”. There will be no need to visit a dealer. In addition, the Tesla Model S has been poured with various sensors to analyze the condition of the units and structural components. In the event of an emergency, the service is able to shut off the battery itself.
Tesla Model S was able to get 5 stars during the safety crash test, which is the highest safety rating. In addition, the elevator back-up has the best safety performance in 2013.
This has been achieved through the use of special sketchy body parts. Thanks to the absence of a powertrain and attachments under the hood and in the stern area of the machine it was possible to make a reliable construction, which is supplemented with strength properties by batteries located along the bottom of the “American”.
Among other things, Tesla Model C has safety features such as:
- 8 airbags (there are side airbags for the driver and the adjacent front passenger, side curtains for the 1st and 2nd row of seats, front airbags for the driver’s head and knees and front passenger)
- other safety systems such as immobilizer, battery disconnection in case of emergency, seat belts, etc.
Based on the crash test video, the car is almost deformed. The front glass even remained intact. According to the company itself Tesla Motors, the car even managed to exceed international safety standards. It turns out that the Tesla Model S left its rivals behind for a long time, as the vehicle was able to set safety records. There is one unusual fact: the crash-test on the car’s roof was stopped because the test press broke down.
Below you will also find videos of crash-tests, where there is a frontal collision at a speed of 64 kilometers per hour. During a side impact, a mobile deformable barrier will crash into the driver’s door at a speed of 50 km/h. The last crash test is that the vehicle moves sideways at a speed of 29 kilometers per hour to a rigid block.
Price and equipment
Tesla Model S is not a budget machine. Tesla Model S is available in the United States of America and European countries. The price list of the machine will vary from the chosen set of equipment. The price starts at $62400 and reaches $85900 in the top Perfomance. Basic equipment will have eight airbags, xenon headlights, 17-inch color display – a multimedia system that supports touch input, digital dashboard, electric package, ABS, ESP, dual zone climate control, factory audio system, LED taillights and many other equipment.
The car is not yet officially available in the Russian Federation. However, Tesla Model S can be purchased in Europe or the USA. The price policy will be around $75264,00. Revolta and Ecomotors are a couple of companies in Moscow that are seriously engaged in supplying similar vehicles to the Russian Federation. Moreover, they even carry out maintenance.
A crossover will also be available for sale from 2016. For the basic version Tesla Model X crossover 2015 you will have to pay $81536,00, and for the four-wheel drive – from $114464,00.
Pluses and minuses
- nice and stylish appearance, which electric cars usually can’t boast of;
- powerful electric power units;
- pneumatic suspension, which allows you to adjust the height of the ground clearance;
- comfortable front seats;
- Ergonomic modern interior;
- 17 inch color display that supports touch input;
- in place of the dashboard there is also a colour screen, but no longer a touch screen;
- various front seat adjustments;
- electric power steering that allows you to adjust the applied force;
- brilliant dynamic characteristics;
- It’s a choice among complete sets;
- environmental friendliness;
- good suspension;
- all management is simple and intuitive;
- high-quality brake mechanisms from leading global companies;
- various security systems;
- Eight airbags;
- update via Wi-Fi software;
- strong and robust aluminium bodywork;
- two-zone climate system;
- large volume of luggage compartment;
- low drag coefficient;
- small dimensions of an electric motor;
- there is a warranty period;
- Much less nodes and elements that are subject to breakdowns;
- silent functioning;
- chargeability even in domestic conditions;
- massive and attractive wheels;
- the safest electric car
- there is a small extra luggage compartment under the hood at the front;
- energy recovery system;
- It’s “fast charging”;
- Little consumables.
Cons of a car
- not many specialized “gas stations”;
- replacing the battery is an expensive procedure;
- Back tall passengers will not be as comfortable as there is a falling roof line;
- Rear seats are not as comfortable as the front seats;
- the power reserve is not yet as comfortable as possible;
- no specialized service centers.
I am very pleased that our world has finally found a place for environmentally friendly cars, because our Earth is already quite polluted with exhaust emissions. It is clear that such models only begin their life journey, but you understand that there are people who are right in life. We can see that Ilona Mask is not indifferent to our environmental situation.
Of course, his electric cars are not so cheap now, but I want to believe that in time, when the popularity of such electric cars will grow, the cost of Tesla vehicles will be more democratic. Of course, even before Tesla, there were many cars on electric power units and hybrids, and even now they continue to be produced, however, Tesla cars are out of competition.
For example, because the appearance of the car is not as “unpleasant” as it is made by most car manufacturers. Also, the power reserve and the “smart” work of the Tesla machine in many ways surpasses all competitors. Specialists working at the Mask were able to achieve a stylish appearance, comfortable and practical interior, excellent control and amazing power. They have not forgotten about ensuring the proper level of safety.
As in front of the people sitting in the car there are no power units and other elements, which are available in a normal car – when you hit nothing to move into the cabin and hurt the passengers and the driver. Ilona Mask’s cars deservedly managed to get the highest marks according to international safety standards. We would also like to hope that in our countries such vehicles will be given more freedom, and the government will “stimulate” the transition to more environmentally friendly vehicles.
It is pleasant that Tesla Motors does not plan to stop at what has been achieved and continues to update the existing American cars, as well as produces new ones. The company also does not think to forget about the cars that have been produced for a long time, updating their software and making them even better. We are really on the threshold of a new car era.
We advise you to read the article: Tesla Motors’ History