The Ural-375 is a four-wheel drive, all-wheel drive, cross-country vehicle. Among the people it is called “gluttony”, as the car “eats” a large number of high-octane fuel AI-93. The truck has been produced at the Ural Car Plant in Miass since the 1960s. The ZIL-157 was replaced by the Ural-375D model. It was the most important truck of the Russian Army in 1979. After that, the Ural-4320 replaced it. The whole model range is Ural.
The truck was used to transport military personnel and cargo and was used for shock weapons. For example, we can mention the Grad multiple-launch system, which is still in use today. In 1969, the Ural 375 was able to become the best passable vehicle in the class of such trucks, for which he received the gold medal of the diploma of the 1st degree at the German fair. Production took place from 1961 to 1992. The machine could overcome difficult roads with the help of a pair of driving rear wheels, where there is a scheme of the front axle, as well as road clearance of 400 mm.
In 1964, they began to produce an improved version of the truck, which acquired the name 375D. After 8 years, the truck was able to get the highest category of quality, and a year later, and the state quality mark, which was the best trophy in those days, and all this for good cross-country ability and excellent technical equipment. If you say in general, the car was quite successful, and in many ways surpasses, even the current trucks. Below will be described the car Ural-375, photo, price and drawing.
Construction features of the machine
As a special feature of the vehicle was a cabin with a soft tarpaulin top, which is removable and fixed on the arcs. The front glass was straight, which was fixed in a rigid frame, falling on the hood. A wooden platform was placed on the chassis to carry people and loads. This platform has 3 sides, which can be lowered, and it is also possible to recline the seats on which the passengers sit. The driving wheels of the 3 axles were a pair of rear wheels.
Overall characteristics of the Soviet truck with cross-country ability Ural 375 look as follows: the length of the truck was 7 350 mm, width – 2 690 mm, and height – 2 680 mm. When the awning was installed, the car became higher – 2,980 mm. With similar parameters, the car will turn around with a radius of 10.8 meters, which is a good indicator of its maneuverability. The Ural with three axles and 6×4 wheel configuration had a wheelbase of 4,200 mm. The car could take on 5,000 kg, and could tow a trailer or semi-trailer, which could weigh up to 10 tons. Gross vehicle weight was 13.3 tons.
Ural 375 outside the USSR
In those days, there were not many cars that could be exported to other countries, but the 375D Urals are among them. The mid-sixties allowed the first vehicles to go to Mongolia. The next batch of trucks went to the GDR. If we take all the years of production on the platform of the Ural 375, then a large number of special purpose vehicles were created. Among them were launchers “Grad”, tank trucks, fuel tankers, truck cranes, mobile headquarters and others. Also the Ural 375 Kung was created. Special transport was widely used for the needs of the Russian Army and armies of the Warsaw Pact member states. The vehicles were faithful assistants in civilian areas, among which the plants that produced gas and oil, helped seismologists and geologists well.
It is not the first year that the capacity of the plant of this truck in the Urals is being continuously improved on its modernization. Several modifications of the Ural 375 were produced. Their technical component was retailed between them. The changes affected not only the cabin, but also the platform itself. If you take the debut model, those cars that went later, were already with all-metal cabin, where three people could also sit. The wind window has no hinged frames, it became deaf, and the glass installed on the doors, too, did not tilt down, they fell. Moreover, they introduced swivel vents. Speaking about the Ural 375 base itself, it still represents a metal construction with a single rear side that opens.
The main disadvantage was considered to be the power unit. Despite the fact that the mid-60s were marked by the fact that the design staff was able to develop a model of the Ural-640 engine, it could not be put into mass production, because there was a lack of production capacity of the plant. On this basis, for a long time the machine was equipped with a gasoline four-stroke power unit ZiL-375, which is why the fuel consumption was simply huge. It was an 8-cylinder V-shaped 7-liter engine, producing 180 horses. The engine with a carburetor power system for every 100 km of road asked for up to 70 liters, but the control consumption was about 48 liters per 100 kilometers. And the engine time between repairs was just short. The vehicle had a system of centralized change of pressure in the wheels (from 0.5 to 3.2 kgf/cm2) and two-disc clutch.
But if we go back to the issue of high fuel consumption, this problem had to be corrected. The beginning of the 1970s allowed the engineering staff to test the new power unit, which worked on a diesel engine, which was planned to be mounted on a KAMAZ machine, although they did not yet exist, but the company itself in Naberezhnye Chelny began construction. Two years later, 4 trucks of the Ural E4320 were equipped with YaMZ design bureau engines, and after two years the acceptance committee approved serial production of off-road vehicles with a similar engine.
As a result, after 1977 the Ural 375 truck acquired a new engine – KAMAZ-740, where there were 210 horsepower and the volume was 10.85 liters. Trucks equipped with similar diesel engines purchased a prefix Ural-4320. The improved vehicles were able to quickly replace the already familiar “inefficient” model, but the production of the Ural 375D still continued. Small batches of this machine were produced even before 1991.
Compared to its predecessor, the 4320 was less passable and often slipped on soft ground, which is why it was considered a major drawback. This could be due to the fact that there was no speed regulator, which could be used to adjust the traction force on the wheels. In 1968, a diversion line was developed to ensure that the engine cooling system worked optimally. It was necessary, so that if there would be damage or shutdown of the radiator, the liquid would not stop circulating. What’s more, the only full-flow oil filter was added, because until 1968, cars were fitted with coarse filters. The fuel was stored in two tanks: the main tank was designed for 300 liters of diesel fuel and the auxiliary tank – for 60 liters.
It is also very important what kind of road surface it is, or it can be a complete lack of roads. For example, if the road is completely absent, the level of consumption increases to 50%. On this basis, the power reserve for the 375C truck tractor is about 650 kilometers, despite the fact that there is an additional tank for 110 liters. But 375D can drive about 750 km. Hoping that it will function as a logging truck and move along the forest impassable road, or transport heavy semitrailers. If we remember the earlier model of the car, the gearbox in the Urals 375 was a YaMZ assembly. It was a mechanical, with 5 front and only rear speeds, where there were synchronizers at all speeds, except the first one. The truck of cargo origin has a mechanical dispenser of 2-speed type, which had the ability to block the inter-axle differential.
Basically, no one complained about the Ural 375 checkpoint. The maximum speed of the Ural truck was 75 km/h. The steering of a high-speed truck was represented by a steering mechanism with a worm steering wheel and teeth, as well as a sector equipped with hydraulic power steering. The service brake is represented by a drum hydro-pneumatic mechanism, where there is an open construction, which is responsible for braking.
There is also a dual-circuit pneumatic-hydraulic drive. The brakes are of drum type. The braking system allows the Ural Mountains to stop from 40 km/h to 0, having passed the distance of 15 meters. Some trucks were equipped with a winch with a pulling force of 7,000 kgf on the rear of the frame. Suspension is a spring suspension with shock-absorbing mechanisms.
Today, the Ural company in Miass continues to improve its ratings of military vehicles. In recent years, many specialists in the automotive industry have been presenting the latest developments in nodal systems and engines, which has had a positive impact on the parameters of new vehicles, and has made them multi-purpose products.
During the development of the latest circuits, dual technologies were used. All machines have become serialized. If you pay attention to the newest cars, they are extremely adjusted to the commercial models “Ural”. Thanks to the technical approaches used at the enterprise, it is possible to fulfill all the orders of the Russian Ministry of Defense. And because of the high performance of the car, it can compete with many cars, even abroad.
The future development of the vehicle
If we believe what the company’s general director, Viktor Korman, said, and he said that the production is engaged in long-term cooperation with the Russian Ministry of Defense on the production of a new machine that can meet the standards of modern tactics of combat operations, it is clear that production will not be stopped. Every year there is a large number of vehicles in development. For the last period of time the transport has been able to prove itself from the best side. The Russian Army was able to start real re-equipping and always buys the latest models of military trucks of the Urals.
The company is creating a new program to improve the production of machines in detail. Thanks to the clear functional ratings of the Ural 375, it has been possible to make a confident leap forward even in the world arena. And this applies not only to the military industries, but also to the civilian departments of the economy, where there are oilmen, gas workers and timber trucks, as well as the Urals 375 dump truck.
The budget provides quite a lot of money for the production of the Urals, which makes it possible to purchase equipment from abroad, for example, laser and tire fitting systems. By 2016, the company had set a target of increasing the volume of manufactured machines by 30 percent. The task is not an easy one, but in reality it is quite feasible. Today, the Ural-375 is indeed the leading vehicle in the defense department. This car is even filmed in foreign films.
Main modifications Ural-375
|UralZiC-NAMi 375||Test samples produced in the UralAz ESCO. They went with the cabin ZIL-130.|
|Ural-375||The main modification of the truck, flatbed, cabin has a soft top. Purpose: to transport various loads on all types of roads and to tow trailers weighing up to 5 tons. Wheel configuration 6×6. Was walking along with the carburetor engine ZIL-375. Years of production 1960-1964.|
|Ural-375C||Tractor truck on the platform Ural-375 with a reduced frame by 135 mm. The truck was used for towing semitrailers weighing up to 12 tons on all types of roads.|
|Ural-375D||Since 1964, after improvements the machine was created under the index Ural-375D. From the debut configuration, it was disoriented by the lack of a mechanism to disengage the front axle and a one-piece metal cabin, which was developed for the Urals-377.|
|Ural-375SK1||Improved version of the truck tractor Ural-375C. Years of production 1964-1982.|
|Ural-375K||Modification was intended for operation at low temperature conditions: up to -60 C. The cabin was with auxiliary thermal insulation and double glazing, and installed a pre-start heater with increased capacity, electrical equipment has frost-resistant insulation, used frost-resistant rubber.|
|Ural-375H||In this model the truck was equipped with ZIL-375JA4 power units instead of ZIL-375 engine, wide profile tires, units in the usual non-hermetic design, unshielded electrical equipment. There is no system of air sealing and adjustment of air pressure in the wheels.|
|Ural-375SN||Tractor truck on a 375H platform with a reduced 135 mm rear overhang frame. The vehicle was designed for towing semitrailers weighing up to 18.5 tons on hard surface and up to 12.5 tons on the ground. Following upgrades in 1982, the company acquired the index 375СНМ.|
|Ural-375Yu||Ural-375Yu is a variation of the basic truck for hot climates. It is intended for operation at temperatures from -20 to +50. From the main truck the truck was retailed with insulation of electric drives, valves, as well as products without metal, which were made of materials resistant to high temperatures. The export version was named Ural-375DU (Ural-375DMU since 1982).|
Since many people are very interested in how much the Ural-375 costs now, it is worth answering this question. Due to the fact that the production of this car and the model ended back in 1991, today it can be bought as a second-hand or to find offers for sale with preservation. The average price will be about 400,000 to 800,000 rubles. It is also possible to meet announcements about the realization of the Urals of 2001-2013 years of production, however, these are already more modern modifications of machines, the index of which is 4320. The cost of such a truck may reach up to 3 500 000 rubles.
It’s also a good thing that most sellers are ready to offer new parts together with the machine. Since the machine was quite popular in the USSR, today it will not be a problem to find spare parts for it. If we talk in general, the car, which was designed mainly for the military, is divided by the presence of good reliability, practicality and easy to repair.
Pluses and minuses
- Powerful appearance;
- Personal permeability;
- Carrying capacity;
- High ground clearance;
- The ability to change the pressure in the wheels;
- Wheel drive system;
- Automobile is not so heavy in operation and repair;
- No problems with buying parts and spare parts;
- May “modernize” the machine on its own;
- Little turning radius;
- Not afraid of different temperature modes;
- Created for off-road use;
- Rich history of the machine;
- Relatively small price.
Cons of a car
- It’s just huge fuel consumption;
- The cabin looks Spartan;
- Low dynamic characteristics;
- Weaky brake system.
We sum up
At the end of the review about the Soviet off-road truck Ural 375 there are still warm memories. This is partly due to some nostalgia, but more due to the quality of the past vehicles, which still operate on different roads in Russia. The car does not have any comfort in the cabin, because this truck was created mainly for off-road driving and for military purposes, which can be attributed to the fighting, where the first place is reliability and confidence. And the last Ural 375, just can provide.
It has solid dimensions, impressive height of ground clearance, confident power unit, which together with the gearbox and massive wheels will allow to pass almost everywhere. The world has seen many modifications of this machine, so today they are used in various fields and industries. Until now, it is used in the military sphere, because it has proven itself perfectly.
It can carry a variety of loads, it can be equipped with a winch, it can be used to regulate the pressure in the wheels and so on. However, there are disadvantages in which a car of off-road type loses a lot – it is a huge consumption of fuel, low comfort in the cabin and insufficient brakes. Although, in general, is there much to expect and demand from the truck, which saw its light several decades ago? Hardly. You can buy a car at a relatively low cost, but the issue of fuel will have to be solved every time.
We advise you to read the article: “Ural” – history of the automobile plant