It all began in 1961, when the plant in Miass (Ural) started production of trucks Ural-375. Despite the fact that this model has been constantly upgraded, the truck is not only reliable, but also durable. However, there were also drawbacks, among which – work with gasoline of high octane number. They wanted to repair the car back in the 60s. The Ural residents themselves planned to develop the diesel engine, but due to financial problems their plans failed.
That is why the development of a new engine and gearbox started in Yaroslavl. Diesel received the serial number and name YaMZ-740, while the prototype of the truck was called Ural-E4320. Until the autumn of 1975, several test tractors and flatbed cars were produced. However, production was launched after the completion of documentation. The whole model range is Ural.
The body of a domestic car is a metal platform with a folding board at the rear. It is equipped with benches, awning and removable arches, additional lattice sides. The structure is made in the form of short overhangs, which allows to increase the cross-country ability. Gross vehicle weight is 8,265 kg. Weight of equipment or cargo that is transported can reach 6,855 kg, and it is possible to tow up to 11.5 tons.
The standard equipment on the frame is a 3-seater cab, which was made of thick sheet metal, which in addition and stamped. As for the glazing, it is made so that the visibility of the driver of the car gave the opportunity to fully monitor the situation on the road. For this purpose, side mirrors were made, which are very convenient.
This model is equipped with a cabin with two doors made of metal. It is designed for three people. The driver’s seat is regulated, there is a ventilation system. Some versions of the cabins are equipped with a separate sleeping place. Since spring 2009, the Ural-4320 has been equipped with a new type of cabin made of fiberglass. Operating conditions, control and arrangement of seats in it became more convenient.
Last but not least, its simple design has also played a role. Variations of engines are enough – here you have 230 hp, and 240 hp, and 250 horsepower YaMZ. As a matter of fact, it is possible to make under the order a complete set with YaMZ-7601 for 300 horsepower with a gearbox of 5 stages. The hydraulic booster wasn’t without it. The engines were equipped with a preheater – they fully meet the Euro-3 standard. On board the Ural-4320 is able to take 300 liters of diesel fuel at once, although some models differ in the presence of a 60 liters assistant. The truck consumes 42 liters of diesel fuel per 100 km at a speed of 60 km/h.
The formula of the wheels is 6×6. 4320 has a high cross-country ability, which can be achieved with the help of single wheels with automatic adjustment of air filling chambers on all wheels. The front suspension is dependent and stands on semi-elliptic springs with 2-way shock absorbers. At the rear are also dependent and are located on springs with jet rods. The Ural-4320 has all the bridges (there are only 3 of them) leading. Wheels which stand in front and which are simultaneously operated by a steering wheel, have SHRUSES. JAMZ-182 clutch has a friction drive, where there is a pneumatic booster and has a single disc with a diaphragm type spring.
For 2-speed mechanical dispenser, the drive on the front wheels is always on. MKPP of Yaroslavl Engine Plant contains 5 gears with lockable axle differential, and is perfectly synchronized. Thus, it allows you to get 10 gears for forward travel and a couple of speeds for reverse. In the dispenser there is an inter-axle lockable differential, which distributes the torque of the driving front axle and a pair of driving axles at the back in a ratio of 1 to 2.
These gear units are controlled mechanically. PTO drive – 4-speed PTO shafts. The main transmission of the drive axles is double, containing a pair of bevel gears and a pair of cylindrical gears. A sturdy front and rear bumper is equipped with strong towing equipment in the form of hooks and a towing hitch, which increases the technical equipment of the truck.
It includes two systems: a 2-circuit working system and a spare single-circuit vehicle. In addition, there is an auxiliary function of pneumatically driven brakes from the exhaust system. The system of brakes, mechanical plan, has a brake drum on the transfer case. Parking design of drum-type brakes is installed on the output shaft of the dispenser.
The Ural-4320-10 was set to move by a pair of powertrain types:
- Diesel eight-cylinder KAMAZ-740.10 (also on buses LAZ-4202), the capacity of which was equal to 230 horses, volume – 10.85 liters;
- Yaroslavl (YaMZ-226) – a diesel engine with 180 horsepower;
- YAMZ-236ÍÅ2 (230 horses) – volume 11.15 liters (four-stroke, turbocharged)
- YAMZ-238M2 (240 horses);
- YAMZ-236BE2 (250 horses);
- YAMZ-7601 (300 horses) – under the order.
KAMAZ-740 engine is smaller and lighter than YaMZ-238 and has a higher frequency of crankshaft rotation. At low air temperature, the Kamazovskiy power unit starts well, which is ensured by the use of a strong starter, batteries, which power has been increased, a good engine oil and a starter heater. The power unit is driven by HPF (high pressure fuel pump). YAMZ-238 is a four-stroke motor, which has an ESP (electric flare device for starting in cold seasons). There is one interesting nuance – before the end of the motor, it should run in idle mode for one or two minutes.
The motors fully meet the European standards of Euro-3 level. On board, the off-road truck can take about 300 liters of fuel. Some models have an additional tank for 60 liters. Consumption of diesel fuel in the Urals (with a combination) with engines of the Yaroslavl Engine Plant at a speed of 40 km/h is 31 (36) liters, at 60 km/h – 35 (42). The maximum speed is 85 km/h. When operating on heavy soils, the volume of diesel fuel grows up to 50-55 liters. The power reserve is equal to 1040 kilometers, and it is able to overcome it, fully loaded up to 58%. In addition, the truck can overcome fords, the depth of which is up to 1.5 meters.
The base for transportation of various cargoes or people is made of metal. It has an opening tailgate and lifting chairs located on the sides. It is possible to put the sides on both sides, set the arches and cover with a tent. There are Ural-4320 kits that are supplied with the material made of wood. The board has the form of a continuous or lattice form. The number of passengers that can be carried varies from 27 to 34 seats.
The maximum weight that the Ural can carry is 10,000 kg. The design of the Ural car is such that the power unit is located in front, the hood rises up, there are wide flat wings on the side, which protect the driver’s cabin from the penetration of dirt when traveling off-road, for example.
There are a lot of trucks with high cross-country ability Ural-4320, and each of them has its own peculiarity:
- Ural-4320-01 – was produced in 1986. It is dominated by an improved version of the cabin, in contrast to the previous version, a different platform and gearbox. Was walking along with the Kamazov engine;
- Ural-4320-10 – produced with 6-cylinder power unit YAMZ-236, which produces 180 horsepower. The vehicle was designed for transportation of various cargoes, people and towing trailers on roads and off-road. The winch always came out of the box when it got stuck (which was very rare) and could be designed for a distance of up to 65 m;
- Ural-4320-31 – produced in 1993 with 8-cylinder powertrain, the capacity of which increased to 240 horses. Moreover, it is retailed with improved power density settings;
- Ural-4320-30 – truck with increased wheelbase and increased payload;
- Ural-4320-41 is a truck with a used engine of Yaroslavl plant (YaMZ-236ÍÅ2), produced in 2002. It met Euro-2 standards and had 230 horsepower;
- Ural-4320-40 – modification 4320-41, only with extended base;
- Ural-4320-44 – produced in 2009 – the same version of 4320-41, but different cabin, which increased comfort;
- Ural-4320-45 – truck Ural-4320-44, with an extended base;
- Ural-4320-48 – goes together with YaMZ-7601 engine. A similar version of the machines was specially made for installation of special equipment.
It turns out that in different versions of the machine Ural-4320, the engine power was radically different. Especially, there was a significant appearance in 2009 of a new version of the truck, where the cabin was equipped with additional comfort. For example, the hood was made of fiberglass. Moreover, there was a stylish original plumage. Starting from this year, the company is worried not only about off-road properties of the truck, but also about the convenience of staying in the driver’s cab, which was not paid so much attention before.
It is worth saying that while assembling the truck, the engineers thought about the person who will drive the Russian car.The steering wheel was not deprived of a hydraulic booster. The cabin had a pretty good heater. The driver’s seat is adjustable in three directions – height, length and adjustable reclining of the backrest. There are headrests and armrests, making the ride more comfortable. They have started to install seat belts.
The interior began to produce with materials that provide a good noise and thermal insulation. The instrument panel was conveniently positioned. All sensors and gauges can be easily read, and the necessary buttons and switches can be used without leaving the driver’s seat. There is also a small and rational glove compartment, and a shelf for the safety of papers and other things and property. Under the passenger seats, there is a toolbox. There is a possibility to complete the car with a sleeping place.
Price and equipment Ural-4320
Over the long history there have been many different configurations and modifications of this truck. Of course, most of the trucks were for the needs of the army. In 2011, the Indian company created an armored truck Casspir Mk6 based on the Ural-4320. During the tests, the tuned truck withstood a powerful explosion of 21 kg of TNT. But let’s return to the pricing policy. As for the cost of the Russian truck with increased cross-country ability, the Ural-4320, the plant has established a pricing policy, which starts from 1 700 000 rubles for a car with a cabin of the previous generation and engine YAMZ-236NE2 (230 horsepower).
For the Ural-4320 with the newest cabin and the same engine YAMZ-236ÍÅ2 (230 horses) it will be necessary to pay 1,710,000 rubles. For the long chassis of the Urals and increased payload, you will have to pay 1,880,000 rubles. The model of the Urals onboard, covered with a tent and with a winch, the same engine for 230 horses, costs 1,790,000 rubles. At last, the Ural-4320 flatbed, with a long base and the Yaroslavl engine for 230 horse powers, it will be possible to get from 1 950 000 Russian rubles.
We sum up
The Model 4320 Ural was a successful successor to the voracious 375 D, which consumed up to 70 litres of gasoline per 100 km. Even today, this car causes some wild delight in just one appearance. It can carry absolutely any cargo, passes where the road is permanently closed for many off-road vehicles. The 6×6 wheel configuration and fantastic 360 mm ground clearance lay the foundation for the production of the 4320 Urals for many years to come.
We advise you to read the article: “Ural” – history of the automobile plant