We could not avoid the legendary Soviet tractor KAMAZ-5320, which helped to transport billions of cargoes and became the first vehicle. This model was produced in the period from 1976 to 2001, however, the task to create a new family of diesel trucks was set in 1968. Already in the spring of 1969, the world saw a sample of ZIL-170 truck, and in 1972 – the same prototype with documentation was delivered to Naberezhnye Chelny.
Until 2001, the vehicle was produced with minimal changes, while the technical equipment remained almost unchanged. It is worth noting that the production of KAMAZ-5320 was more than large-scale and marked one of the last strike constructions, which could raise the country to a new level. Three years after the start of production, a hundred thousandth heavy load came off the conveyor belt. The whole model range is KAMAZ.
So, what is KAMAZ-5320 like when you look at it externally? This is a tractor that can work in conjunction with a trailer GKB. Load capacity is more than decent – 8 tons, and in the towed trailer you can grab another “eight”. The body of KAMAZ 5320 is a metal platform, where the side walls together with the rear can be opened. Thanks to this it is possible to provide more comfortable loading and unloading of any cargo on each of the three sides. The floor was made with the use of solid wood. If necessary, a protective tarpaulin can be installed.
The very appearance of the car of the Kama plant is quite recognizable, because even today you can often meet them on various roads. Although, it is necessary to admit that the cabin, frankly speaking, is outdated and needs a new modernization or, even better, a new design. The curb weight of the 5320 model is just over 7 tons, the trailer weighs 3.5 tons. If you fully load the trailer, its total weight may reach 26.5 tons. Now let’s walk along the dimensions.
The cabin of a Soviet-made truck was designed for three seats. At the same time, there was no separate space for “sleeping” here. Despite this, for a long time KamAZ’s salon was considered to be the standard of comfort on the road among trucks of that time. And what other truck could boast of excellent noise and thermal insulation, places for fastening seat belts, driver’s seat, which is regulated under the weight of the driver. Moreover, the driver’s seat belonged to the sprung type.
Of course, there were some disadvantages: the steering wheel was too big and the gearbox was slightly uncomfortable. However, you get used to everything, so it was always possible to close your eyes to these drawbacks KamAZ. The cabin cabin has all the necessary instrumentation and indicators that allow the driver to read information about the condition of the car. The dashboard has a signal system with excellent visibility of scales and switches. Compared to other similar trucks, the 5320 has been ranked first in terms of safety for the driver and the passengers sitting next to him.
But there are still many drawbacks in the interior of the Kama car. The salon looks in Spartan style. The front (windshield) is divided into two parts. Pedals are not the most comfortable, so you can get tired of long journeys. However, at the time when KAMAZs were still in production, the salon was one of the best and most comfortable.
Kamaz used a four-stroke v8 diesel engine. Its power was equal to 180 or 210 horsepower. There was also a V-shaped fuel injection pump (high pressure fuel pump) of slide valve type, as well as a low-pressure fuel injection pump with fuel injection function and a multilever speed regulator. The maximum speed per minute is 2600. Engines were developed at the engine plant in Yaroslavl, and their volume was equal to 10.85 liters.
The machine can operate in various climatic conditions at temperatures from +50 to -40 degrees Celsius. The correct operation of the cooling system is ensured by the hydraulic coupling and the thermostat pair. Engineers have closed down the cooling system and developed it for the application of the toothpaste.
Moreover, there is a function of air purification with automatic suction of dust and dirt. In cold weather operation, the diesel engine was supplied with a preheater and an electric flare system. The degree of compression is 17. Nozzles were installed of closed type.
With several upgrades, the consumption of solar energy has been reduced. These innovations allowed the domestic flatbed truck to compete almost equally with foreign vehicles. KAMAZ-5320 has a couple of tanks: the volume of one of them is 250 liters, and the second – 175 liters.
It represents the presence of a multistage system, which consists of a 2-speed divider and a 5-speed gearbox. Such a system makes it possible to receive, in addition to the standard gearboxes, auxiliary forward and reverse gears. Do not forget about the installation of synchronizer.
KAMAZ 5320 gearbox has a 2-disc clutch, which does not lose its own fame. This device works like a friction device and can be activated by means of a hydraulic booster. It is controlled by peripheral springs.
The truck runs at a speed of 50 km/h and has a braking distance of 36.7 metres from 60 km/h. Maintenance of the KAMAZ 5320 vehicle is recommended to be performed after each 100-kilometre mileage. Maintenance service after 8 000 kilometers. Maintenance of the machine includes diagnostics of mechanical and electrical services, fastening works and lubrication of mechanical connections.
The front suspension has springs (semi-elliptic, with sliding rear ends). The leaf springs function together with double-acting telescopic dampers. The rear-mounted suspension is of a balancing type. There are also semi-elliptic springs, sliding front and rear ends. Absorption plates have a T-section.
This truck is controlled by means of a hydraulic booster, which is combined with a steering unit.
In order to regulate the speed of the KAMAZ-5320 and its effective stopping, a specialized device is used. Each of the 6 wheels of the truck is equipped with braking devices, which function with the help of pneumatic drive mechanism. The dual-circuit device allows the driver to switch the rear axle to a functional position, with the rear-mounted bogie starting separately.
In addition to the parking brake, a spare brake, which is a pneumatically actuated engine retarder, was combined with a parking brake. The trailer is equipped with a combined braking function. The brake system is presented in the form of drums. The steering is provided by a mechanism which is a nut and piston screw.
Stability and modifications
We have already talked about the fact that in 2001 the last “KAMAZ” came off the conveyor belt. Meanwhile, this model is quite actively sold in the secondary market. There is also an opportunity to rent KAMAZ-5320. For each hour of operation it will be necessary to pay 900 – 1 500 rubles.
(Scoffs): Oh, yeah, yeah;
Already in 1984, a prototype was created, and a general concept for the production of gas-diesel on the platform of a diesel machine was developed. In the following year, 85th, test runs were held, which showed that the gas-diesel method improves fuel economy, smoke and engine noise.
Three years later, in 1987, in Naberezhnye Chelny, production of KAMAZ-53208 and KAMAZ-5312 trucks with gas-diesel engines was launched. The engine output was 210 hp. Gas-diesel chassis with 3190 mm platform had the value of KAMAZ-53217.
|Variant truck for the tropics KamAZ-5320.
|manufacture for wide use of fuel tanker type, fire truck, auto-concrete mixers, cars for road-harvesting and public utilities, as well as Nefaz in the construction of dump truck for agriculture KamAZ-55102.
|with motor from 7403.10 had the name KamAZ-53211.
|At the same time with the described KamAZ there was a test drive and a modest number of flatbed truck with a wheelbase increased to 3690 mm and a length of 6100 mm. It could carry the same 8,000 kg. Already in 1980, it was replaced by KAMAZ-53212, which was already carrying 10 tons. The chassis of the KAMAZ-53202 truck had the value of KAMAZ-53203.
|Mid-80s was marked by the fact that together with the Scientific Automobile and Engine Institute (NAMI) and the participation of the Kama and Yaroslavl factories, they invented a productive variation in the use of gases in diesel units – the function of GD-NAMI (gas-diesel system). According to this scheme, a list of amendments and transformations was made to the diesel engine structure – a gas mixer, a function of storage, control and inlet of gas, a function of interconnected regulation of the pump rail responsible for the supply of diesel fuel, and a gas reducer were added. Moreover, the motor overload and accident protection function has found its place if the fuel supply system ceases to function.
Pluses and minuses
- Fit for any climate – from +50 to -40 degrees;
- Perfect for Russian roads;
- Good maintainability;
- Relatively low price of spare parts;
- Leasibility of the truck;
- Easily transfers overloads;
- Compartment with a divider;
- Can get to the garage with some breakdowns.
- Appceptable ground clearance height;
- Perfect visibility of the car;
- Not bad brake system;
- There are various modifications that extend the capabilities of the truck.
Cons of a car
- More interior;
- Motor noise;
- Bad interior noise insulation;
- In order to make repairs special skills are required;
- Weaky engine.
- Not very comfortable seats;
- Many free space is useless;
- Construction of the salon causes censure;
- Quality of materials used in interior decoration is low;
- High fuel consumption.
We sum up
Many people know Kamaz-5320 not by hearsay. It is clear that it is still far from the European variants, but, at its time of production, it was the ideal variant. Although, even today it can be met very often on the roads. Especially, the three-axle car copes perfectly with the rough terrain and is not afraid of large temperature changes.
Repairing a flatbed truck is not so difficult, and spare parts can be purchased almost everywhere. All this makes it unique and popular. And its low cost allows you to buy a car for your needs without spending too much money. However, do not forget that the model has long been withdrawn from production, so maintenance should be carried out more often.
Fuel consumption of KAMAZ 5320 is still high, which is already lower than that of some opponents. The KAMAZ 5320 checkpoint is very familiar to many motorists, so many already know its weaknesses and strengths, as well as how best to repair it.
We advise you to read the article: KAMAZ – era cars